Background. The identification of factors that specify prognostic models for postoperative results should be based on the best scientific evidence and expert assessment. We aimed to identify, map, and evaluate potential prognostic factors for the improvement of shoulder function in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods. Longitudinal primary studies of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair reporting any multivariable factor analyses for shoulder function improvement with an endpoint assessment of at least 6 months were included. We systematically searched EMBASE, Medline, and Scopus for articles published between January 2014 and June 2021. The risk of bias of included studies and the quality of evidence were assessed using the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool and an adapted Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations framework. Results. Overall, 24 studies including 73 outcome analyses were included. We classified younger age and smaller tear size as probably prognostic for a greater improvement in objective outcomes. Shorter symptom duration, absence of a worker compensation claim, low preoperative level of functional status, and high preoperative pain level were classified as probably prognostic for greater improvement in patient-reported outcome measures. The quality of the synthesized evidence was low. Twenty-one studies had an overall high risk of bias. Conclusion. Six potential prognostic factors for shoulder function after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were identified. Along with ongoing expert opinion assessments, they will feed into a prognostic model-building process.